something fun…enjoy! RT
Drawing: Two Figures (by 1926); Albert Muller. Crayon on paper. WikiCmns; Public Domain.
After doing some research, RT is pretty certain that his mother traveled over this bridge into Omaha when her mother took her cross-country to Lake Tahoe in 1938. The story is part of A Daughter’s Song and Dance, his mom’s memoir of her childhood years. (RT has been working on Chapter 3, which relates the cross-country trek).
A great photo… RT
Photo: The Ak-sar-ben toll bridge (A.K.A., the Douglas Street Bridge) between Council Bluffs, Iowa and Omaha, Nebraska in 1938. Farm Security Administration. WikiCmns; Public Domain.
some of RT’s favorite ingredients–go ahead, dig in! RT
(reposted from I WANT TO COOK THAT)
too much history here for a brief post…enjoy the beauty! RT
Photo: Satellite image of the Aegean Sea. NASA. WikiCmns; Public Domain.
In Europe, the 11th century was a complicated time. The Byzantine defeat at Manzikert (1071) opened the Anatolian plateau to Turkish conquest and settlement even as the break-up of the Caliphate of Cordoba (1031) effectively ended Moorish hegemony in Spain. The ongoing contest between Christianity and Islam produced great cultural innovations at this period, one of which, the appearance of the troubadour in Occitania, profoundly stimulated and advanced art, manners, and morals in Western Europe.
The tale is too long to tell here, but RT suspects that further postings are to be expected on the topic of the troubadours and the development of poetry in Europe. Of course, RT hasn’t forgotten his thread about the Roman Crisis of the Third Century, for which a final installment has been promised. He is just doing a little thinking ahead.
Illumination: Arnaut Daniel (13th Century). WikiCmns; Public Domain.
great recommendations from a fine reader and writer…RT
(reposted from The Librarian who doesn’t say “shhh”!)
AD 270: After struggling through almost four decades of weak emperors and continuous invasions by alien peoples, the Roman Empire at last found the man to lead it out of crisis: Aurelian. Born in near obscurity in Roman Dacia, Aurelian rose through the military ranks as a successful commander until he was proclaimed emperor following the brief reign of another soldier-emperor, Claudius II. The new emperor at once embarked on an incredible series of military campaigns.
Claudius had already scored a decisive victory over invading Goths at the Battle of Naissus, and Aurelian built on this momentum. In 271, he overcame initial defeat in Italy at the hands of the Alemanni to destroy the invaders at Pavia. After ordering the construction of the Aurelian Walls around Rome, he led his army into the Balkans, where he defeated another horde of invading Goths, killing their leader in battle.
Aurelian continued his march east, easily retaking Asia Minor from the Palmyrenes. In Syria, Aurelian finally encountered real resistance, crushing the Palmyrenes at Antioch. The victory led to the siege and capture of Palmyra, and Zenobia (240-275) herself was captured as she was attempting to cross the Euphrates into Persia (274) The queen was taken back to Rome, where she was made to walk in golden chains as part of the emperor’s triumphal entry into the city.
Accounts differ over Zenobia’s fate, some suggesting that she was beheaded shortly after arriving in Rome, but others relating that she married a Roman senator, gave birth to several daughters, and became a famous socialite. What else, after all, could the Romans do with a lady who claimed descent from Dido?
The subsequent reconquest of the Gallic Empire seems anti-climatic: Aurelian persuaded the Gallic emperor Tetricus to capitulate before battle, and Tetricus fled into the Roman camp during the fight, leaving his army to scatter before the onslaught. Aurelian awarded him with high position in Rome.
As charmed as Aurelian’s career seems, however, he did not escape the usual fate of emperors during the crisis: he was murdered by own officers in Thrace (A.D. 275).
Aurelian was not only a great leader in battle, but an energetic and constructive ruler as well. He restored many public buildings, re-organized the management of the food reserves, set fixed prices for the most important goods, and prosecuted misconduct by the public officers. The only true loss that occurred during his reign was the burning of the Great Library of Alexandria while the emperor was subduing a rebellion in Egypt–and even this is not certain.
But at Aurelian’s death, the empire was still weak. Dozens of thriving cities, especially in the Western Empire, had been ruined, their populations dispersed. They could not be rebuilt; the currency had lost much of its value during the crisis and much of the empire’s economic infrastructure had been wrecked. Another sign of trouble: major cities and towns had not needed fortifications for many centuries; many now surrounded themselves with thick walls.
And these are only the most superficial problems. Part 5 will spell out the deeper changes. RT
RT’s Related Posts: 1) The Crisis of the Third Century, Part 1, Rome; 2) The Crisis of the Third Century–Part 2: The Gallic Empire; 3) Palymyra, Valerian, Shapur, Mani–The Crisis, Part 3
RT makes a pretty mean apple chutney himself… RT
(reposted from So Many Books)
…painted banana yellow, no less… RT
Photo: Bentley 3-Litre Drophead Coupé 1921. Author: Lars-Göran Lindgren Sweden. WikiCmns; CC 1.0 Generic.
RT has double-checked: his post After Sappho is the Rag Tree’s official post #1000, according to WordPress.
RT is amazed he’s gotten this far with the blog; he remembers his first few tentative postings, all without images, and the many wonderful things and superb people he has encountered since those days. He is developing further thoughts on what to do with this blog, most prominently, moving onto WordPress.Org. Money is still tight, however, and he is biding his time.
By way of thank you to his loyal readers, RT lists some of them below. These folks have stuck with him through the blogging ups and downs he has negotiated over the past three years:
1) Margo Roby, Wordgathering. The one and only (so far) Queen of the Dragons of Grammar.
2) Aubrey. A gifted writer enamored of all things Victorian (& then some).
3) X-ties. More is going on in New Zealand than you think…
4) Leanne Cole Photography. …and the graphics from Down Under are impressive, too.
5) N. Filbert (a.k.a. “The Whole Hurley Burley.”) Notebooks, videos, thoughts worth finding, and more.
6) SIMONHLILLY. Poetry, The World Tree, and beauty, generally.
7) Calmgrove. Books: serious fun!
8) Jeffrey Harbin. Great photos from Texas!!
9) The Glyptodon. Tiny porpoises and other miracles.
9) Esther. poems, images, lovely ladies from France…
10) Cindy Knoke. Book reviews!!!
11) thehumansarah. Photos, some of them even funny!!!
12) Elephant. Old-fashioned picture book pictures, just like we used to read!
Thank you all for your loyal interest!!!
Photo: Bouquet of flowers; Author: Paolo Neo. WikiCmns; Public Domain.