Arnaut Daniel, Troubadour
In Europe, the 11th century was a complicated time. The Byzantine defeat at Manzikert (1071) opened the Anatolian plateau to Turkish conquest and settlement even as the break-up of the Caliphate of Cordoba (1031) effectively ended Moorish hegemony in Spain. The ongoing contest between Christianity and Islam produced great cultural innovations at this period, one of which, the appearance of the troubadour in Occitania, profoundly stimulated and advanced art, manners, and morals in Western Europe.
The tale is too long to tell here, but RT suspects that further postings are to be expected on the topic of the troubadours and the development of poetry in Europe. Of course, RT hasn’t forgotten his thread about the Roman Crisis of the Third Century, for which a final installment has been promised. He is just doing a little thinking ahead.
Illumination: Arnaut Daniel (13th Century). WikiCmns; Public Domain.