Archive for the ‘M. Stars’ Category

Worth It




Wow! Sometimes traveling 4.67 billion miles (or getting up at 4 in the morning) is worth it…  RT

Photo: Pluto Backlit by the Sun. NASA. NASA website. Public Domain.


Rendezvous with Rama–A Book Review

February 25, 2014 1 comment

File:Rama in forest.jpg

RT remembers his first encounter with Rendezvous with Rama; he was 13, living in Costa Rica and attending boarding school in Arizona. He had become a devotee of Arthur C. Clarke, the famous science fiction writer, through reading Clarke’s stories published in Analog (if RT’s memory serves him correctly). But Rama was something else again. RT was swept away by the power of Clarke’s vision of an enormous (50-km-long), cylindrical alien space ship, dubbed Rama by us awe-struck humans, racing through the solar system. An intrepid band of human explorers gains entry to Rama, and the story concerns what happens thereafter.

But RT’s life was racing along, too, and he soon moved on to more adolescent preoccupations.

Recently, however, the book has been haunting RT, and so this week he bit the bullet, checked out a copy at his local library, and reread it in a couple of days.


Early Sci-Fi takes a lot of flak from literary critics: its authors were scientists first and foremost, and their authorial skills, whether concerned with fiction technique or the realities of social relationships, are therefore supposed to be stunted. In proof, the usual suspects are marched out: elementary plotting and scene construction, limited and repetitive diction, cardboard characters, women who are men with breasts, and the like. RT cannot speak for Sci-Fi in the period from 1930 to say 1960, but by the time he started reading the genre in the early 1970s, things, at least among the most famous Sci-Fi authors, had begun to change; and the encounters he has had with more recent Sci-Fi suggest that the field has reached literary maturity and, indeed, an impressive sophistication.

That isn’t to say that Rendezvous with Rama doesn’t show some signs of the literary neighborhood that produced it: in particular, Clarke’s diction is repetitive at times and the plotting is very straightforward. But none of that affects the novel’s strengths: its sense of wonder and a certain atmosphere that RT will discuss in a moment. More troubling to RT are the Simps (that is, super-chimpanzees) that serve on the Endeavor, the human ship that has gotten the story’s characters to the eponymous rendezvous. The simps provide all domestic services on board. Equipped with an IQ of 60, they are pictured as ideal servants, capable of cleaning things up but not understanding what menial service means or experiencing what it feels like. Well, maybe it would work, but the idea that the ship’s captain will never have to soil his hands with laundry and that the simps will never experience a sense of being at the bottom of the totem-pole, is problematic. Isn’t hierarchy an invention of the higher mammals? Wouldn’t a topsy-turvy day when the captain washes the dishes be good for all concerned?


But RT’s caveats and quibbles aside, RwR presents a world that is truly alien, in which the ship’s alien inhabitants, or at least some of them, lack mouths, have eyes located in odd places, and appear to be organo-metallic: nope, there’s no common ancestor with terrestrial zoology here.  More tellingly, though it’s evident that the Ramans possess a very high degree of intelligence, the human explorers find no written script. Do the Ramans possess writing? Can they speak? We’ll have to go to the book’s sequel, Rama II, in hopes of finding out.

But that’s what makes RwR so great: the continuous sense of discovery, of entering a genuinely new world. The appeal here is not to our assumptions; in the book they are often shown to be wrong. But that doesn’t mean that Rama is utterly alien: the spaceship possesses an oxygen atmosphere and, at its most hospitable, semi-tropical temperatures. Could all life, produced by whatever combinations of evolution, manufacture, and command, still have some common defining characteristics?

And so we reach the composite image, the total vision, that Clarke presents of Rama. The ship’s interior, while certainly strange and occasionally threatening, tends towards the wonderful, and most of all in the demands for growth that it offers to its human explorers. Do we want to be more like the Ramans, possess their accomplishments? The answer is, yes. We want to grow towards the unknown, at least sometimes. That is the source of book’s optimism, its underlying sweetness.

Utopias are odd. (And whatever else Rama is, it is a completely planned world.) They are meant no so much to be perfect as to be challenging. We would not wish our planet to become Rama, but if it could help us work towards a happier existence, we can only humbly thank its creators.


Image: Rama in Forest (date: 1920s; author: Raja Ravi Press). WikiCmns; Public Domain.


Ed White and a New Birth in Hope

October 1, 2013 Leave a comment

File:Ed White spacewalk.jpg

On June 3, 1965, Edward White became the first American to walk in space. The event created a sensation around the world. The things we can accomplish when we want to…   RT


Martian Dunes–Fantasy Follows Nature

September 18, 2013 Leave a comment

Several types of downhill flow features have been observed on Mars. This image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is an example of a type called 'linear gullies.'

Raw experience forms the playing blocks of our dreams. RT wouldn’t say that our exploration of space is changing the nature of beauty, but it might be broadening our conception of what’s possible…   RT


Photo: Linear Gullies; NASA, HiRISE Camera, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, June 13, 2013. NASA web site; Public Domain.



Voyager 1 Enters Interstellar Space!

September 14, 2013 5 comments



NASA has confirmed it: launched in 1977, Voyager 1 entered interstellar space in August 2012. Another giant leap for mankind…  RT


Photo: Voyager 1; NASA. WikiCmns; Public Domain.

Cygnus Loop Supernova

August 31, 2013 7 comments

File:Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave - GPN-2000-000992.jpg


Whoa, what happened here? Five to ten thousand years ago, a massive star exploded, sending out shock-waves in all directions, creating the Cygnus Loop. The blast shell is currently expanding at 370,000 mph and emits energy across the electromagnetic spectrum: radio, visible, x-ray, and ultra-violet. Some of the ejecta material, however, is travelling faster: the violet streak of light near the top of the image marks the path of a knot of gases moving at nearly 3 million mph. This image is a combination of three photographs: one capturing green light (hydrogen atoms), one, blue light (oxygen atoms); and the last, red light (sulfur atoms). 

The visible part of the Swan Loop is called the Veil Nebula, and was discovered by William Herschel in 1784.


RT’s Related Posts: 1) Guest Star.


Photo: Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave (1993); Hubble Space Telescope. Author: NASA, J.J. Hester Arizona State University. WikiCmns; Public Domain.

Transit of Venus

August 15, 2013 2 comments


This high-definition photo of Venus transiting the Sun (taken in 2012) speaks directly to our awe at the powers of nature and the universe. The next transit will occur in 2117; who knows where space exploration will be by that point?   RT

Photo: SDO’s Ultra-High Definition View of Venus 2012 Transit (NASA/SDO, AIA). WikiCmns; CC 2.0 Generic.


Io and All That

June 29, 2013 3 comments


Time was when the Galileo spacecraft was the hottest ticket on the block; now, its successor mission, Cassini-Huygens, after having successfully sent back wiga-ziga bytes of information and some of the most spectacular photographs ever taken in space, is winding down. Jupiter and Saturn, the two planets most likely to hold thrilling secrets, have been investigated with something very like a microscope.

Not that there’s nothing new to be learned from these planetary systems, particularly if Jupiter’s moon Europa can be imaged with ice-piercing radar (in the hopes of finding living creatures in its sub-surface ocean). But RT is a bit worried that people’s enthusiasm for space exploration is lagging. The practical benefits of space cannot be ignored, and RT is all for putting bases and then colonies on the Moon and Mars, but he still remembers the real thrill of space when it erupted into the public’s consciousness in the 1960s–the hope that we will be transformed for the better by what we learn and experience, that in the great endeavor of moving out into the solar system and stars we will be challenged, humbled, and vindicated in our hopes for ourselves and the world.

OK, RT is getting off his soap box. But to help remind people of why space-travel is necessary, he offers the above photo, taken some time ago by the Galileo spacecraft, and still one of the most gorgeous images sent back by our robotic explorers.  RT


Photograph: Io and Sodium Cloud (9 November 1996); Galileo Spacecraft; NASA. Public Domain.


Enceladus & Saturn’s Ring Shadows

June 15, 2013 1 comment

File:Enceladus backdropped by ring shadows on Saturn.jpg

as the summer comes in, something beautiful from a cool location… RT

PhotoRing shadows line the face of distant Saturn, providing a backdrop for the brilliant, white sphere of Enceladus. Captured by Cassini space probe, 28 June 2007. NASA; Public Domain.


Cat’s Eye Nebula



Here’s another eyeful, the Cat’s Eye Nebula, photographed from the Nordic Optical Telescope (which is, please note, located in the Canary Islands).

The CEN (NGC 6543) is a planetary nebula, which means it is a ring of gases that is being ionized by a nearby star, in this case the remnants of a red giant (or possibly a binary star system) that died in an extremely complex process. What is certain is that the CEN has the most intricate halo of gases ever observed in a planetary nebula.

Here is RT’s effort at reconstructing the star’s death: the original star expanded into a red giant, sending out long trails of its outer material into space, where they encountered interstellar gas and dust that broke the trails up into spectacular streamers and knots of gas. Then the star began a series of explosions, ejecting more material to form a set of shells surrounding the star. These events took place 1,500-1,000 years ago; the CEN is located 3,000 light-years from earth.

What a masterpiece of stellar art!   RT


Photograph: The Cat’s Eye Nebula (photographed 9 September 2004); author: Nordic Optical Telescope and Romano Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain). WikiCmns; Public Domain.